Negative Ions

Negatively or positively charged substance in the air.

A negative ion is a negatively charged atom, molecule or complex molecule having more than its normal amount of electrons. The small amount of electricity does not give you an electric shock! You cannot see this tiny object with the naked eye nor feel it.

An atom with a positive electrical charge is a positive ion.

 

Decrease for some reasons with unique interpretation of air ions

Negative ions in the air decrease or seem to decrease by:
1. NEUTRALIZATION WITH POSITIVE IONS
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IONS ARE ELECTRICALLY CANCELLED OUT.
2. DIFFUSION
NEGATIVE IONS WIDELY SPREAD IN THE AIR, RESULTING THE NUMBER OF NEGATIVE IONS PER CC (I.E. ION DENSITY PCS/CC) DECREASES.
3. ABSORPTION BY DUST
THIS IS APPLICABLE TO AIR IONS ONLY. AFTER ABSORPTION, THE MASS OF THE COMBINED OBJECT (I.E. NEGATIVE IONS AND DUST) IS MUCH MORE THAN IONS THEMSELVES AND IT IS REGARDED THAT THEY ARE NO LONGER IONS (SMALL IONS). THIS IS BECAUSE IT IS GENERALLY UNDERSTOOD THAT NEGATIVE IONS HAVE SMALL MASS. NEGATIVE IONS NEITHER DISAPPEAR NOR LOSE THE ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES.

Enhance relaxation, alleviate symptoms of disease, and healing power

Several experiments demonstrate that negative ions have positive effects on the human body.
e.g.

  • Enhance relaxation
  • Alleviate symptoms of disease

Much research regarding negative ions has been conducted and reported since the early 20th century. It has been proven that negative ions stimulate growth and extend life spans of animals and vegetation and thus contribute to improved productivity.

Negative ions are classified by size and chemical composition

[Size]
Some molecules in the air combine to form a negative ion molecule. Generally, negative ions are floating in the air in a group. Depending on the size of the group, they are classified into small, medium and large ion groups. It has been said that small groups have better effects on the human body.Small ions, which are lighter and travel faster in the air, are more efficiently absorbed by the human body and produce more negative ion effects than large ions.

It is said that the amount of electrons, which work on the boy, determine the negative ion effects.

[Chemical Composition]

Negative ions have not been fully analyzed chemically yet. The following are well-known examples.

Oxide molecule ion → O2 + (H2O)n
Carbon dioxide ion → CO3 + (H2O)n
Nitric acid ion → NO3 + (H2O)n

Some reports say the Nitric acid molecule ion is more often found than other type of negative ions.It is believed NH4+ type positive ions are the mainstream of positive ions.
(Reference: Luts,1995 and others)

 

Not too sure if Ions in a solution and those in the air behave the same.

“Negative ions” usually refers to “negative ions in the atmosphere”. For more than a century the majority of research has focused on ions found in the air and how they affect the human body.However negative ions in the atmosphere have not been fully analyzed yet.
Therefore it is too early to conclude if negative ions in a solution behave the same way as those in the air even though both are negatively charged.

Negative ion effects on the human body

Not only stress alleviation and relaxation enhancement but also various effects have been reported.1. Reported by our customers (Extracts from testimonials)

Sleep well

  1. It seems he has a good sleep because he no longer says ” I cannot sleep well”.
  2. I can sleep well and wake up less often than before after midnight.
  3. I placed it under the bedsheet. I can sleep deeply and wake up refreshed.
  4. Everyday I enjoy a good sleep. My mother-in-law is happy as it alleviates her back pain!
  5. I can sleep well and wake up refreshed as it helps to recover from fatigue. Impressed with the immediate effects!
Relaxed/Less stressed

  1. I feel more relaxed compared to before!
  2. I feel more relax and easy to fall asleep. It improves my bladder condition n lesser toilet frequency.
  3. I feel more calm after sitting near the Ion Mini!
  4. I enjoy a good sleep. My skin condition is improved. I do not get irritated. The symptom of rhinitis is improved!
  5. I get less irritated. I think this is a negative ion effect!
Less tired/Reduce fatigue

  1. I can sleep well and wake up refreshed as it helps to recover from fatigue. Impressed with the immediate effects!
  2. Even after a hard work day, I recover from the exhaustion when I wake up in the morning. I am impressed with the performance!
  3. We felt less tired and my pet dog is very active compared to before.
  4. It solves her fatigue complaints, and she sleep very well.
  5. Everyday I enjoy a good sleep. My mother-in-law is happy as it alleviates her back pain!
Refreshed

  1. I can have a good sleep and wake up feeling refreshed in the morning!
  2. I wake up refreshed and feel good even when I sleep an hour shorter than usual because I can sleep deeply!
  3. I do awake in the morning feeling more refreshed than before!
  4. They can sleep well until the next morning and they wake up refreshed.
  5. We wife enjoy a deep sleep and we wake up so refreshed!
Remove cigarette smoke

  1. I no longer need to stay away from someone who is smoking because it removes cigarette smoke smell!
  2. Cigarette smoke avoids me. I purchased a great product!
  3. Cigarette smoke no longer annoys me!
  4. She noticed that the cigarette smell is no longer noticeable or less smelly!
  5. Helps me keep my mind at ease as i am asthmatic!
Purify the air

  1. I do awake in the morning feeling more refreshed than before!
  2. I felt more fresh air in a stincky,smoky taxi and did not sneeze so much like before!
  3. It works to help my body to reduce the radio side effects!
  4. THIS HAS GREATLY REDUCED SEASONAL ALLERGIES AND RESPIRATORY ILLNESS!
  5. I feel more calm after sitting near the Ion Mini!

2. Reported in books/literature (Negative ion effects reported in medical literature)

NEGATIVE ION EFFECTS REPORTED IN MEDICAL LITERATURE
High blood pressureLow blood pressure
Pulse rateArteriosclerosis
RheumatismMultiple sclerosis
Sleeping disorderMigraine
EpilepsyBronchial asthma
Menopausal disorderStress

3. Quoted by researchers in the field of negative ions

CATEGORYNEGATIVE IONPOSITIVE ION
GeneralTranquilizationStimulation
Inducement of sleepDisturbance of sleep
Subsidence of painHeadache
Appetite stimulationUncomfortable feeling
Blood pressureDownUp
Pulse rateDownUp
RespirationStabilizedStimulated
Capillary vesselsExpandShrink
Blood sugar levelsDownUp
Blood lactic acid levelsDown to normal quicklyDown to normal slowly
Artificial anemiaRestoration effectSignificant restoration effect
Serum surface tensionUpDown
Blood oxygen levelDownUp
Oxygen consumptionDownUp
DiuresisStimulatedInhibited
Urine nitrogen levelUpDown
Bowel movementConstipated
FatiguePreventedWorsened
Recovery stimulatedRecovery delayed
Bone growthPositive effectNegative effect
Experimental scurvyPreventedStimulated
Recovery stimulatedRecovery delayed

Reference: Air ion and life, The negative ion research association

Negative ion effects on the air

Negative ions remove dust and particles. This is why air purifiers and negative ion generators purify the air.Reported by our customers (Extracts from testimonials)

Cigarette smoke

  1. I purchased this device as I am a passive smoker. It is working!
  2. I no longer need to stay away from someone who is smoking because it removes cigarette smoke smell!
  3. Cigarette smoke no longer annoys me!
Odor

  1. 80-90% of the odor is removed in the car!
  2. It removes room odors and makes the air fresh!
  3. The results is amazing, the smoke has cut down tremendously and odor is lesser!
Fresh air

  1. I feel not only less tired but also feel the fresh air and relaxation effects! I made the right purchase!
  2. The air is fresh! It also works to remove odors.
  3. The fresh air makes me feel good, I am totally satisfied!
Pollen

  1. Pollen does not cause itchy eyes. My throat and nose are fine!
  2. I suffer from pollen and dust allergies but I have had no problems now!
  3. I had an itchy eye caused by pollen but the symptom is gone, thank you!
Dust

  1. I had terrible running nose caused by hayfever. My nose does not run when it is turned on. The symptom starts again when it is turned off!
  2. My son has a runny nose caused by allergic rhinitis. His nose does not run even when the pollen count rises!
  3. I now enjoy a good sleep. The air in my room is cleaner as dust decreases!
Negative ion effects on animals and vegetation
Negative ions stimulate growth and extend life spans of animals and vegetation and thus contribute to improved productivity, this has been utilized by many companies.

Negative ion effects on fresh foodstuffs

Negative ions are used to maintain freshness of fish, meat, vegetables and fruits and have been utilized by many companies.

Caused by atmospheric electric fields, automotive exhaust gas, industrial smoke, etc

  1. Negative ions that naturally exist at or near the earths surface are usually created by radiant rays emitted from the core of the earth, cosmic rays and thunderbolts. The same amount of positive ions are also produced during the process. Only negative ions are carried to the sky by atmospheric electric fields stretching from the sky to the earth, which results in more positive ions at ground level.
  2. Automotive exhaust gas and industrial smoke contain more positive ions than those negatively charged.

Recommended dosage not established

A recommended dosage has not been established yet. It depends on symptoms, individuals, environment and many other factors.
Negative ion count ranges of 53 research reports
Ion counts for treatment in 53 research reports show that 1,000-500,000 (pcs/cc) negative ions have been used effectively for treatment purposes.

Research activities started about 100 years ago

In the early 20th century, research activities on negative ions started in Germany, Russia, and some other countries, but many were disrupted by the WWII.Extensive research was conducted in Japan during the 1930s at universities, in particular at Hokkaido University, and in laboratories. A number of theories were established during this period. Research had only been conducted by a small number of researchers until the late 1990s when negative ions started attracting more attention

Difficult to take a large amount of negative ions in nature

A large amount of negative ions can be detected where water splashes such as waterfalls and fountains. This is called the Lenard’s effect.However ion counts in nature change constantly depending on how water splashes.

We have conducted an experiment near a fountain and found dramatic changes as we moved one step forward or backward. 1,000-10,000(pcs/cc) of negative ions can be detected near a large waterfall but the counts are not consistent. You can enjoy nature but you cannot enjoy a large amount of negative ions.

Small atoms in your environment

Negative ions exist in the air around you with a smaller amount of positive ions. They are measured in pcs/cc. Negative ion counts in the atmosphere usually range between 0 and some hundred per cc.

 

A large amount of negative ions exist where water splashes such as waterfalls and fountains.

A large amount of negative ions can be found where water splashes such as waterfalls and fountains.

You can enjoy more negative ions in your room with a negative ion generator (ionizer).

 

Created by radiant/cosmic rays and thunderbolts

It is believed that negative ions, which exist in living space, are created by radiant rays emitted from the inside of the earth, cosmic rays and thunderbolts.Positive ions are also created during these ionizing processes.

Negative ions are classified by size and chemical composition

[Size]
Some molecules in the air combine to form a negative ion molecule. Generally, negative ions are floating in the air in a group. Depending on the size of the group, they are classified into small, medium and large ion groups. It has been said that small groups have better effects on the human body.Small ions, which are lighter and travel faster in the air, are more efficiently absorbed by the human body and produce more negative ion effects than large ions.

It is said that the amount of electrons, which work on the boy, determine the negative ion effects.

[Chemical Composition]

Negative ions have not been fully analyzed chemically yet. The following are well-known examples.

Oxide molecule ion → O2 + (H2O)n
Carbon dioxide ion → CO3 + (H2O)n
Nitric acid ion → NO3 + (H2O)n

Some reports say the Nitric acid molecule ion is more often found than other type of negative ions.It is believed NH4+ type positive ions are the mainstream of positive ions.
(Reference: Luts,1995 and others)

Classified by how negative ions are generated

You can find a variety of negative ion products on the market. Some generate a large amount of negative ion molecules while others only a small amount. They generate negative ions by:

  1. Discharge electrodes
  2. Splashing water
  3. Ultraviolet rays
  4. Natural ores

Products range from negative ion generators (ionizers) to air conditioners, hair driers, home appliances, clothing, bedding and so on.

Effective way to take negative ions

We suggest you should rely on a negative ion generator (ionizer) for these reasons.

1. constantly generates a large amount of negative ions
2. easy to install
3. 1 generator covers the whole room (no need to buy other items)

There are many negative ion generator (ionizer) on the market. Some work well, while others don’t.

About Negative Ions

Almost all positive (“+”) natural ions during fair weather come from radioactivity. About 40% of these natural air ions come from radioactive minerals in the ground. Each time a radioactive atom decays near the air, it typically ejects an energetic alpha particle, produces 50,000 – 500,000 air ion pairs as it travels a few cm through the air. Another 40% comes from radon in the air (which produces about 250,000 ion pairs for each radon atom), and 20% comes from cosmic rays (high-energy protons from distant supernovas). Indoors, ions “live” typically 30 seconds before touching a surface and shorting to ground. Outdoor ions usually “live” several minutes more. Natural negative ions usually come from radioactivity and evaporating water. Lightning, thunderstorms, and forest fires can contribute “+” and “-” ions, but these ions are not produced under everyday conditions.

Negative Ions cannot be produced without an energy source. An “energy source” means, heat or flame, radioactivity, frictional rubbing, electricity, evaporation (which is a heat process), etc. Minerals that are not radioactive do not spontaneously emit ions. Normal fair-weather ion concentrations are 200 to 800 negative and 250 to 1500 positive ions per cubic centimeter. Indoor levels are usually lower. Several hours before a storm, + ion concentration will increase dramatically, sometimes exceeding 5000 ions per cubic centimeter (cm3). During a storm, – ions increase to several thousand while + ions decrease, often to below 500.

Negative Ions can also be produced by high-energy events, such as an open flame or a glowing hot object. Hot objects usually emit equal numbers of + and – ions. High DC voltage (over 1000 Volts), especially when connected to pointed metal edges or needles, will produce ions of the same polarity as the voltage source. This is the basis of electric ionizers. Evaporating water will produce – ions in the air and as a consequence leave + charges behind in the water that hasn’t yet evaporated. If the excess + charges left behind are not conducted back to ground, the water will become + enough that – ion production will cease. For example, a fountain that has a motor that plugs into the wall will continuously produce – ions (until the water runs out) but a battery operated fountain will stop producing – ions after a few minutes if the fountain is well insulated from ground. The same is true of a battery-powered air ionizer. In general, for about every 3×1014 water molecules that evaporate, one water molecule carries an excess – charge.

Because a large concentration of + ions can attract – ions, high concentrations of + and – ions are often found together. Typically, a high concentration (1000 or more) of both may be found in one area outdoors while low concentration (300 or less) is found typically one city block away. A cloud of pure + ions

(no -) with a concentration of 1000 ions/cm3 would be very unstable and would fall apart if its diameter were more than about 30m (100′). For this reason, high concentrations of exclusively + (or exclusively – ) ions tend to be compact, and don’t extend more than about 30m. The only exception is during storms, when strong atmospheric electric fields can maintain a high concentration of exclusively one ion polarity. Indoors, the concentration of ions can vary radically from place to place (even over a distance of less than a meter). This strong variation occurs because air mixing (circulation) is often poor or nonexistent indoors. For this reason, if for example a negative ionizer is used indoors, a fan is usually needed; otherwise, the ions may just stay within an invisible “cloud” that extends no more than 2 m in front of the ionizer. The resistivity of air (in ohm cm) is 6×1018 /N, where N is the number of ions/cc (whichever is lower of + or -). The “half-life” (in seconds) of charges on a charged object is approximately T1/2 = 1.2×105/N.

The lifetime of “fast” ions (these are the most common type) is determined by how long they last before they collide with a solid (or dust) which usually neutralizes their charge. Indoors, electric fields are stronger than outdoors. Plastic surfaces charge to a typical potential of -1000 volts. This produces electric fields of 500-5000 volts per meter (V/m) near the plastic surface. The electric field repels negative ions (air molecules with an extra O- or OH-.) The mobility of “fast” ions is about 1.2×10-4 m/s per V/m (meters/second per volt/meter of electric field). Therefore, in a typical electric field near charged plastic of 2000 V/m, fast – ions are repelled at a speed of 2000 x 1.2×10-4 = 0.24 m/s. Positive ions (air molecules with an extra H+ or positive ammonia molecule) are attracted to the plastic by the same field. Mobility of fast + ions is slightly lower (about 1×10-4 m/s per V/m) so they have a slightly slower speed. (There are also “slow” ions, which literally travel slower in a given electric field because they have a bigger volume [per amount of electric charge]. Typically these slow ions are much less common than fast ones. The Air Ion Counter Model AIC2 detects both, and displays the total number of charges per cc in the air. However, the sensitivity to slow ions is about 50% low.) If + ions in the air touch negatively-charged plastic, the ions give up their + charge. This partially neutralizes the – charge on the plastic. Under typical conditions, 99% neutralization of the – charge on the plastic would occur in a few hours. However, dust blowing by will rub against the plastic and acquire a + charge. This dust carries the + charge away (ultimately to Earth ground). As a result, the plastic usually retains some negative charge. A good way to standardize (and lengthen) the lifetime of indoor ions is to put them in a large cardboard box. (Cardboard is actually somewhat conductive, so there is little electric field inside a box.) Average ion lifetime in a one cubic foot cardboard box is around 50 seconds, regardless of humidity, so if, for example, 4 pCi/L of radon is in the box, it will produce a continuous 1600 + ions/cm3 in the box.

You can produce negative ions directly by rubbing cotton fabric (or your hair) against a plastic object, which will then briefly emit negative ions. You can use a plastic comb on your hair. If you then blow air past the comb, the air will have between 1000 and 10,000 -ions/cm3 immediately next to the comb. The number is lower in high humidity. Also, your breath contains about 20,000 to 50,000 – ions/cm3 from the evaporating water, but you must be grounded to exhale a concentration this high. If you are insulated from ground, you will become more positively charged with each exhalation (by about five volts) because your breath is removing negative charge. Eventually, you will become sufficiently positive (after exhaling about 20 times), that the negative ions will immediately return to you. This is the same effect that occurs in building cooling systems that use an evaporating water tower. If not properly grounded, the water pump and vents will become very positive. (If the inside vents are isolated from the evaporating water via a heat exchanger, the vents may become very positive and produce a large number of + ions. This can be corrected simply by grounding the vent).

Indoors, near ground level or in the basement, most + ions come from radon gas, although solid elements such as thorium and uranium can also contribute if they are on the surface of the concrete or rock. The number of ions is directly proportional to radon concentration multiplied by average ion lifetime. (Strong electric fields indoors will reduce the ion lifetime.) Because it is unlikely that a high level of 1000 + ions/cm3, (or 1.00 on the Air Ion Counter Model AIC2) can come from anything else other than radioactive decay, flame, smoke, or a hot electric heating element, it is probable that 1000 + ions/cm3 in a basement signifies the presence of at least 4 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) of radon (2000 ions/cm3 = 8 pCi/L, etc.) Four pCi/L is the maximum allowable amount in the U.S. If radon is the source of the ions, then the concentration of ions will be approximately equal throughout the basement. If, instead, it is +1000 near a water heater but only 100 + ions/cm3 elsewhere, it is not radon, but instead it from a little exhaust from the water heater. A slightly higher concentration of + ions near cracks in the concrete foundation or near corners indicate the radon is coming in there. If the average + ion count is low (for example, less than 100), then there is essentially no radon present. It is not possible to “hide” the ions that radon produces. “No + ions” means “no radon”.